Description of the technological scheme for wastewater treatment
For the treatment of wastewater from emergency spills of pollutants, wastewater has been selected
the following technological scheme of cleaning.
Wastewater goes through the following stages: mechanical treatment (primary settling tanks),
biological treatment (bioreactors with anaerobic treatment zone, bioreactors with aerobic
purification zone), coagulation and sedimentation of sludge in secondary settling tanks, post-treatment on filters,
sludge treatment in an aerobic mineralizer, dewatering in a bag dryer.
Wastewater is supplied from the pumping station through a pressure pipeline to block-modular
treatment facilities into primary settling tanks.
Primary settling tanks are made of steel and are used for sedimentation of undissolved and
partially, colloidal contaminants. During the settling process, sedimentation of suspended
particles. Settling is the simplest, least energy-intensive and most economical
by the method of separating mechanical impurities from wastewater with a density of excellent density
water. The relative simplicity of settling facilities determines their widespread use in
various stages of wastewater treatment and treatment of resulting sludge. Effect
settling is 60% with a settling duration of 2 hours.
Wastewater purified to standards for biological treatment enters the anaerobic zone
bioreactor, in which the destruction of difficult-to-oxidize organic matter occurs on a biocarrier with
immobilized and free-floating microorganisms. Then the cleaning happens
wastewater in the aerobic zone of the bioreactor (aeration tanks). In addition, in the anaerobic zone of the bioreactor
Nitrification processes occur, as a result of which ammonium compounds are oxidized to
In aeration tanks-bioreactors, a mixture of activated sludge and purified waste slowly moves
liquids. The mixture of waste liquid with activated sludge is aerated throughout the aeration tanks
through a system of air supply pipes and micro-bubble titanium aerators for oxidation
organics and saturation of water with oxygen necessary for the life support of microorganisms
and removal of gaseous decomposition products. Air supply is carried out using
blower compressors. The compressors are supplied with basic accessories,
necessary for trouble-free operation. Compressors work completely
automated. In case of unexpected shutdown of the working compressor, it is provided
automatic switching on of the backup unit.
In order to intensify the operation of treatment facilities, an aeration system with
using pneumatic aerators made of sintered titanium powders. Main
advantage of porous metal aerators compared to filter plates and
tubular aerators have lower specific resistance (3-4 times) with less
pore size (hence, with smaller bubble sizes - up to 150 µm), which allows
reduce the air supply by 30-50%, thereby reducing specific energy consumption for aeration,
without compromising the quality of cleaning.
Each bioreactor tank is divided into two sections by partitions. In each section
cassettes with biocarrier BPS-140-60 are placed to secure activated sludge particles.
An important distinguishing feature of structures (FWF) is the use
biotechnologies with activated sludge immobilized on an inert biocarrier (loading).
The biocarrier has a spatial spiral design and is made from
polymer materials, the advantage of which is their low specific gravity, chemical
durability, high specific surface area. Thanks to the rough structure, loading is good
retains biofilm, which is not removed from the structure during volley arrivals
sewage and other unfavorable conditions. This allows you to create and maintain
bioreactors stable high concentrations of microorganisms-destructors, increases
stability of the system to uneven supply of wastewater for treatment and its heterogeneity
Methods for intensifying the work of an aeration tank, the use of bio-carriers for the formation of
them immobilized form of microorganisms, as well as the use of thin-layer blocks
in settling tanks – certified and protected by a patent.
As a result of biological purification, clear, non-rotting water is obtained.
containing dissolved oxygen and nitrates. Biological treatment facilities
provide a significant reduction in pollution indicators for suspended substances and
After biological treatment, wastewater flows by gravity into secondary settling tanks,
working in a countercurrent scheme for more complete removal of phosphorus compounds and
sludge deposition. In the last zone of the bioreactor, a solution of the coagulant “Aqua Aurat 30” is supplied. To prepare the coagulant solution, a preparation unit is provided and
dosing of reagents consisting of plastic tanks for preparing and storing the solution
coagulant and dosing pumps for supplying the solution. The coagulant solution enters the consumables
tanks via gravity pipeline. To prepare a coagulant solution, use
purified and disinfected water.